2023, Vol. 4, Issue 1, Part A
Cultural and molecular techniques for the detection of Yersinia enterocolitica in food: An update
Author(s): Mahendra Pal, Kirubel Paulos Gutama, Gebrerufael Girmay, Anita Tewari and Luciana da Silva Ruiz
Abstract: Yersinia enterocolitica, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped zoonotic bacterium, is an important cause of foodborne infections. It is the principal etiological agent of yersiniosis, a disease that can affect people of all ages and both sexes. The bacterium is transmitted through the fecal-oral route by ingesting contaminated food or water or contacting infected animals or people. It can be found most commonly in cooler climates. Yersiniosis can cause symptoms, such as fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting in humans. Some cases of yersiniosis can lead to serious pathologies, such as self-limiting enteritis, acute mesenteric lymphadenitis, and septicemia. The foodborne yersiniosis mostly occurs in sporadic form but outbreaks are also reported from many countries including Australia, Brazil, China, Finland, Japan, Norway, and the United States. Livestock are not known to develop clinical signs on their own, except for decreased thriftiness and sudden mortality. Identification of the agent could be made by recovery facilitated by the use of Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin (CIN) selective agar or Y. enterocolitica chromogenic agar (YECA); if possible, isolates should be serotyped and/or bio-typed via biochemical assays, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Many selective enrichment and plating media for isolating Yersinia enterocolitica from foods have been described. Cold enrichment in phosphate-buffered saline plus 1% sorbitol and 0.15% bile salts (PBSSB) and two-step enrichment with try tone soy broth (TSB) and bile oxalate sorbose (BOS) broth are very efficient methods for the recovery of a wide spectrum of Y. enterocolitica serotypes. Cefsulodin irgasan novobiocin (CIN) and Salmonella-Shigella deoxycholate calcium chloride (SSDC) agar is the most frequently used plating media. DNA-based methods like PCR assays are becoming more popular and sensitive than conventional culture methods.
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How to cite this article:
Mahendra Pal, Kirubel Paulos Gutama, Gebrerufael Girmay, Anita Tewari, Luciana da Silva Ruiz. Cultural and molecular techniques for the detection of Yersinia enterocolitica in food: An update. J Adv Microbiol Res 2023;4(1):36-40.