Journal of Advances in Microbiology Research
2022, Vol. 3, Issue 2, Part A
Melioidosis: A life threatening tropical disease of public health significance
Author(s): Mahendra Pal, Leena Gowda, Kirubel Paulos Gutama, Adugna Girma Lema and Jyoti Priyadarshani Srivastava
Abstract: National and international public health agencies have been aware of a number of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses in recent years. These diseases are responsible of high morbidity as well as mortality both in humans and animals. Burkholderia pseudomallei, an environmental organism that is commonly found in the soil and water, is the cause of melioidosis. The disease mostly affects sheep, goats, and humans, with sporadic cases of infection in horses and subclinical disease in pigs. Southeast Asia, northern Australia, and the South Pacific are the regions with the highest prevalence of the disease, which is becoming endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Additionally, it is spreading to non-endemic regions. Currently, melioidosis is responsible to cause death of around 90,000 people annually. Transmission occurs through cutaneous abrasion and inhalation of contaminated dust. Humans contract the disease by soil-infected skin abrasions, contaminated drinking water or surface water, and aerosolization of these pathogens. Diabetes, renal failure, and alcoholism are the key risk factors of the disease. The disease has a wide range of acute and chronic local and systemic symptoms. The gold standard for diagnosing melioidosis is the isolation and identification of bacteria from the clinical specimens. Antibiotics, such as ceftazidime, imipenem, and meropenem are used to treat disease because of their broad spectrum of activity. Better coordination between veterinary and medical specialists, as well as general hygiene practices, are crucial for the prevention of this deadly infectious disease because there is now no vaccination available to immunize the susceptible population.
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How to cite this article:
Mahendra Pal, Leena Gowda, Kirubel Paulos Gutama, Adugna Girma Lema, Jyoti Priyadarshani Srivastava. Melioidosis: A life threatening tropical disease of public health significance. J Adv Microbiol Res 2022;3(2):05-09.