2022, Vol. 3, Issue 1, Part A
Growing role of candida albicans as an important cause of nosocomial infection
Author(s): Mahendra Pal, Martin Hofmeister, Kirubel Paulos Gutama, Claudete Rodrigues Paula and Diniz Pereira Leite Jr
Abstract: Candida albicans is an important opportunistic fungus that causes disease in humans as well as in animals. Globally, bloodstream infections due to Candida spp. are responsible for 400,000 cases each year. Approximately, 25,000 cases of candidemia occur in the USA annually. Around 90% of AIDS patients suffer from Candida infections. Candida albicans can colonize practically every human tissue and organ, producing catastrophic infections, despite being a normal microbiota of the humans and animals. It is the most common cause of nosocomial infection in hospitals around the world. A vast range of virulence factors contribute to the ability of C. albicans to infect a wide range of host niches. Virulence factors include the expressions of adhesins and invasins on the cell surface, polymorphism, the creation of biofilms, the production of hydrolytic enzymes, and phenotypic switching, among others. The clinical spectrum of candidiasis is wide as it can cause stomatitis, esophagitis, gastritis, vaginitis, balanitis, diaper dermatitis, otitis, endophthalmitis, endocarditis, cystitis, osteoarthritis, candidemia, and meningitis. Candida albicans with hematologic malignancy and disseminated infection is associated with high fatality rate. Direct microscopy, culture, and biochemical identification are all common phenotype-based C. albicans detection approaches. Several molecular biological approaches, including as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time PCR (RT-PCR), mass spectrometry, and immunoassay, have also been used to detect C. albicans. Patients infected with C. albicans are treated with a variety of antifungal medicines, including clotrimazole, miconazole for topical treatment, and fluconazole and itraconazole for systemic injection. Keeping the skin clean and dry, adjusting food preferences, avoiding frequent use of antibacterial soaps, taking medications as advised by a doctor, and maintaining a healthy lifestyle are the best preventative actions that can be taken. In immunocompromised patients, early diagnosis and prompt chemotherapy are essential to avoid complications. The typing of C. albicans by restriction mapping is imperative to investigate the spread of the pathogen in hospital wards.
Pages: 47-52 | Views: 495 | Downloads: 275
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How to cite this article:
Mahendra Pal, Martin Hofmeister, Kirubel Paulos Gutama, Claudete Rodrigues Paula, Diniz Pereira Leite Jr. Growing role of candida albicans as an important cause of nosocomial infection. J Adv Microbiol Res 2022;3(1):47-52.