2021, Vol. 2, Issue 2, Part A
Herpes simiae: A life threatening viral anthropozoonotic disease
Author(s): Mahendra Pal, Kirubel Paulos Gutama, Claudete Rodrigues Paula, Dimitri Ketchakmadze and Nino Durglishvili
Abstract: Herpes simiae (B virus infection) is a life threatening viral anthopozoonosis that is transmitted from an infected macaque monkey to humans. The infection is reported from several nations including Canada, China, Great Britain, Japan, USA and others. Herpes simiae virus (Macacine herpesvirus 1 (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1, CHV-1) is the endemic simplex virus of macaque monkeys. Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 is the new name for it. Monkey B virus, Herpes B virus, B virus, and Herpesvirus simiae are all names for the same virus. The infection with herpes B virus (B virus) is common in macaques. B virus infection in primates is similar to herpes simplex virus 1 infection in humans, but in its natural host, B virus generates only minor localized lesions. Several modes of primates to human transmission of B virus infection have been implicated. In humans, however, B virus can produce a serious disease that can lead to encephalitis and death. The transmission of simian herpesvirus in humans can occur by bites, scratch, contact with monkey saliva, tissues, or tissue fluids; only one case of person-to-person transmission has been described. In two recorded occurrences, airborne transmission is thought to have occurred as a result of clinical conditions, but there is no sufficient evidence to back up this theory. Virus isolation, the presence of particular antibodies, or both, are used to diagnose herpes simiae infection. It is imperative to provide a biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment facilities for the isolation of the virus to decrease the risk of exposure for laboratory workers. Herpes simiae infection poses a health risk to the veterinarian, laboratory personnel, and health care professionals who are exposed to macaques or their infected tissues, or secretions. Neurologic sequelae are generally observed in the survivors. Prompt diagnosis and antiviral therapy is highly imperative to decreases the death rate. As herpes simiae infection in human beings is often lethal, it is important to raise awareness of the risk of herpes simiae infection. Post-exposure prophylaxis, personal protective equipment, and monkey handling practices are all strategies of the prevention and control of herpes simiae that poses a serious risk to human health.
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How to cite this article:
Mahendra Pal, Kirubel Paulos Gutama, Claudete Rodrigues Paula, Dimitri Ketchakmadze, Nino Durglishvili. Herpes simiae: A life threatening viral anthropozoonotic disease. J Adv Microbiol Res 2021;2(2):24-27.